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For the greater metropolitan area, see Metro Manila.
City of Manila
Ph seal ncr manila.png
Ph locator ncr manila.png
Region National Capital Region
Mayor Joseph Ejercito Estrada (United Nationalist Alliance)
Barangays 897
Physical characteristics
Area 38.55 km²
Total (2000) 1,581,082
Density 41,014/km²

The City of Manila (Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynila), or simply Manila, is the capital of the Philippines and one of the municipalities that comprise Metro Manila. The city is located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay on Luzon, the country's largest island.

Manila is the hub of a thriving metropolitan area home to over 10 million people.

Manila is the second most populous city proper in the Philippines, with more than 1.5 million inhabitants. Only nearby Quezon City, the country's former capital, is more populous.

Manila got its name from may nilad, Tagalog for "there is nilad," in reference to the flowering mangrove plant that grew on the marshy shores of the bay. In the 16th century, Manila (then Maynilad) grew from a Muslim settlement on the banks of the Pasig River into the seat of the colonial government of Spain when it controlled the Philippine Islands for over three centuries from 1565 to 1898. Beginning in 1898, the United States occupied and controlled the city and the Philippine archipelago until 1946. During World War II, much of the city was destroyed. The Metropolitan Manila region was enacted as an independent entity in 1975. Today, the city and the metropolis thrive as an important cultural and economic center.


The City

Manila Bay and Yacht Club

Manila lies at the mouth of the Pasig River on the eastern shores of Manila Bay, which is on the western side of Luzon. It lies about 950 kilometers southeast of Hong Kong and 2,400 kilometers northeast of Singapore. The river bisects the city in the middle. Almost all of the city sits on top of centuries of prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig River and on some land reclaimed from Manila Bay. The layout of the city was haphazardly planned during Spanish Era as a set of communities surrounding the original Spanish Era walled city of Manila, called Intramuros. Intramuros is one of the oldest walled cities in the Far East. During the American Period, some semblance of city planning using architectural designs by Daniel Burnham, was adopted for the portions of the city south of the Pasig River.

City planning projects did not stop at Chicago though; Burnham helped shape cities such as Cleveland (the Group Plan), San Francisco, Washington, DC (the McMillan Plan), and Manila and Baguio in the Philippines, details of which appear in The Chicago Plan publication of 1909.

Manila is bordered by several municipalities and cities in Metro Manila: Navotas and Caloocan City to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong City to the east, Makati City to the southeast, and Pasay City to the south.

City seal

The Seal of Manila depicts the words Lungsod ng Maynila and Pilipinas, Filipino for City of Manila and Philippines, in a circle around a shield. The circle also contains six yellow stars representing the city's six congressional districts. The shield, in the shape of pre-colonial people's shield, depicts the city's nickname Pearl of the Orient on top; a sea lion in the middle, in reference to the city's Spanish influences; and the waves of the Pasig River and Manila Bay in the bottom portion. The colors of the seal mirror that of the Flag of the Philippines.

National Government Offices

The City of Manila is the capital of the Philippines and is also the seat of political power in the country. During the early years of the American colonial government, they envisioned a well designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. In nearby "Bagumbayan" or what is now Rizal Park, was chosen to become the center of government and a design commission was given to Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the city patterned after Washington D.C.

Eventually, under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. Quezon, a new government center was to be built on the hills norheast of Manila, or what is now Quezon City. Several government agencies have set-up base in Quezon City but several key government offices are in Manila such as, the Office of the Philippine President, the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the Departments of Budget, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor & Employment, and Tourism.

Parks and open areas

Directly south of Intramuros lies Rizal Park, the country's most significant park. Also known as Luneta (Spanish term for "crescent-shaped") and previously as Bagumbayan, the 60 hectare Rizal Park sits on the site where José Rizal, the country's national hero, was executed by the Spaniards on charges of subversion. A monument stands in his honor where Rizal's remains were buried. The big flagpole west of the Rizal Monument is Kilometer Zero for road distances on the island of Luzon and the rest of the country.

Other attractions in Rizal Park include the Chinese and Japanese Gardens, the Department of Tourism building, the National Museum of the Filipino People, The National Library of the Philippines, the Planetarium, the Orchidarium and Butterfly Pavilion, an open-air auditorium for cultural performances, a relief map of the Philippines, a fountain area, a children's lagoon, a chess plaza, a light and sound presentation, and the Quirino Grandstand.

Another famous open space in Manila is the Baywalk. This promenade lies in front of the Manila Bay where one can experience one of the most breathtaking sunsets of the world. Coconut trees, giant kaleidoscopic lamp posts, al fresco cafès and restaurants, and live acoustic bands dot this two-kilometer stretch of ample space beside Roxas Boulevard.

Aside from Rizal Park, Manila has very few other open public spaces. Rajah Sulayman Park, Manila Boardwalk, Liwasang Bonifacio, Plaza Miranda, Paco Park, Remedios Circle, Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden, Plaza Balagtas and the Malacañang Garden are some of the other parks in the city. In 2005, Mayor Lito Atienza opened the Pandacan Linear Park, a strip of land that served as a buffer zone between the oil depot and the residential-commercial properties in Pandacan and could be found along the banks of the Pasig River. In the northern most part of the city lies the three cemeteries of Loyola, Chinese, and Manila North Green Park, the largest public cemetery in Metropolitan Manila.



Ethnic groups

The original settlers of Manila were the Tagalogs. Throughout the centuries, there has been a constant migration of Visayans, Bicolanos, Ilocanos, peoples from other parts of Luzon, Chinese and Spaniards. There are also Americans, Arabs, Indonesians, Indians, and Koreans in Manila. Intermarriage between ethnic groups is not uncommon in the Philippines.

There are 3 distinct local ethnic groups in Manila. The natives, the Chinese, and the Spanish. The Chinese and Spanish groups, companies and families control most political and financial institutions.

Population density

With a population of 1,581,082 and a land area of 38.55 km², it has the highest population density of any major city in the world with 41,014 people/km² (with district 6 being the most dense with 68,266, followed by the first two districts (Tondo) with 64,936 and 64,710, respectively, and district 5 being the least dense with 19,235). A million more transients are added during daytime as students and workers come to the city.

Aerial view of Manila with the South Luzon Expressway in the foreground.

Manila's population density dwarfs that of Paris (20,164 inhabitants per km²), Shanghai (16,364 people/km², with its most dense district of Nanshi's 56,785 density), Buenos Aires (2,179 people/km², with its most dense inner suburb Lanus' 10,444 density), Tokyo (10,087 people/km²), Mexico City (11,700 people/km²), and Istanbul (1,878 people/km², with its most dense district Fatih's 48,173 density).


The main languages are Tagalog and American English, the language used in education and business throughout of the Metro Manila region, which is also the reason why Metro Manila attracts English students from neighboring Asian countries, and this fuels a call center industry.


Roman Catholicism

Manila is the seat of the Archdiocese of Manila and the Primate of the Philippines. Being the seat of the Spanish colonial government in past centuries, it has been used as the base of numerous Roman Catholic missions to the Philippines. Among the religious orders that have gone to the Philippines include the Dominicans, the Jesuits, the Franciscans, and the Augustinians (which includes the Augustinian Recollects).

Intramuros is currently the seat of the Archdiocese of Manila, the oldest archdiocese in the country. The archdiocese's offices is located in the Manila Cathedral (Basilica Minore de la Nuestra Señora de la Immaculada Concepcion) in Intramuros.

Other notable churches and cathedrals in the city include Catédral de San Agustin in Intramuros, a UN World Heritage Site is a favorite wedding place of notable people and one of two fully air-conditioned churches in the city; Quiapo Church, also known as the Basilica Minore del Nazareno Negro, site of the annual January Black Nazarene procession; Binondo Church, also known as Basilica Minore de St. Lorenzo Ruiz; Malate Church (Nuestra Señora de Remedios); and San Sebastian Church or the Basilica Minore de San Sebastian, the only all-steel church in Gothic style in Asia. Many of the other districts of Manila have their own notable churches.

Other faiths

There are many Buddhist and Taoist temples built by the Chinese community in Manila. The Quiapo district is home to a sizable Muslim population in Manila, and The Golden Mosque is located there. In Ermita is a large Hindu temple for the Indian population, while on U.N. Avenue, there is a Sikh Temple. There is also an LDS temple. In Malate, along Quirino Avenue, there once was a synagogue for the small Jewish community in the Philippines. (See Jews in the Philippines.)

Education and culture

Manila is home to majority of the colleges and universities in Metro Manila. The University Belt or U-Belt, informally located in the districts of Malate, Ermita, Intramuros, Paco, San Miquel, Quiapo, and Sampaloc is the colloquial term for the high number of institutions of higher education that are located in the city. Among them are private school De La Salle University-Manila, all-girls school St. Paul College of Manila and the state-owned University of the Philippines, Manila at Ermita, the private schools Far Eastern University, University of Santo Tomas and University of the East in Sampaloc, previously all-girl school Centro Escolar University and all-boy school San Beda College along Mendiola, private school Colegio de San Juan de Letran, technical school Mapua Institute of Technology, and the city-owned Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila at Intramuros, and the state-owned Polytechnic University of the Philippines in Santa Mesa.

The National Museum of the Philippines, where the Spoliarium of Juan Luna is housed, the Metropolitan Museum, the Museong Pambata (Children's Museum), as well as the National Library is also in Manila, located within Rizal Park.

Educational institutions



Every district in the city with the exception of Port Area has its own public market, locally called the pamilihang bayan. Public markets are often divided into two, the dry goods section and the wet goods section. Commerce in these public markets is lively, especially in the early morning. Under the urban renewal program of the incumbent administration, some of the public markets had been refurbished and given a fresher look, like the Sta. Ana public market. It is one of the more advanced markets in the city featuring a modern 2-story building with an escalator.

The tropical climate in Manila plus the facilities of its world-class malls continue to attract Filipinos to the shopping malls. Modern shopping malls dot the city especially in the areas of Malate and Ermita. SM City Manila, part of the country's largest chain of malls, stands behind the Manila City Hall, while the original SM Department store still operates in Carriedo in Sta. Cruz while another called SM Centrepoint is located north east of the city in Sta. Mesa close to the Quezon City-San Juan boundary. One of the popular malls that lies at the heart of Manila is Robinson's Place Ermita. In the southern part of the city in Malate district is Harrison Plaza, one of the city's oldest shopping malls.

For the adventurous shoppers, you may venture beyond the hotel/shopping complex package and combine other interesting destinations for cheap buys such as in Divisoria and Quiapo districts. Bargaining is the major part of your shopping experience when you pass by on these areas, as it sells goods at rock-bottom prices. In Divisoria, there is already a shopping mall that caters to the adventurous shoppers. Tutuban Center in Divisoria gives a little comfort to the shoppers as it offers air-conditioned mall, but the price of the goods here is still very similar to the goods bought outside. In Quiapo, one unique spot is the marketplace under the bridge. It sells indigenous Filipino crafts and delicacies. Raon Center is famous for its cheap electronic products. Though through the changing times, department stores began sprouting the Quiapo area, but still the flea market of Quiapo is still vibrant and very much popular among the average Filipinos. Photo and video enthusiasts looking for cheap equipment can proceed to R. Hidalgo street in the Quiapo district.


Historical Perspective

The establishment of the country's manufacturing base centered around the not so distant districts of Manila during the SPanish colonial times. During the arrival of the Americans by the turn of the 20th century, Manila's manufacturing base expanded and diversified into different areas and interests.

The district of Tondo due to its proximity to the Manila North and South Harbor became a center for several manufacturing facilities and the district of Pandacan and portions of Paco nearest to the banks of the Pasig River served as centers for manufacturing in the city.

Manila during the Spanish period was well-known for its quality tobacco production by the Manila Tabacalera Company which had its manufacturing and production base along Tayuman street in Tondo. Philippine food and beverage giant San Miguel Corporation first started its beer brewing production along San Miguel district. The old brewing building for San Miguel is now within the high security enclave of Malacañan Palace grounds. Nearby the old San Miguel brewery was the Manila Ice Plant and portions of its old building now houses the Department of Budget and Management. Distilleria Limtuaco, a manufacturer of rhum still operates its facilities in the San Miguel district while its rival La Tondeña which had its production facilities in nearby Quiapo district has scaled down its operations.

Tondo was base for food manufacturing by the 1920s and several American companies established plants in the area. The Philippine Manufacturing Company or PMC established production of various products derived from coconut oil ranging from cooling oil to soaps and toiletries. The Philippine Manufacturing Company would later become Procter and Gamble Philippines and in the late 1980s, production from within the crowded Tondo area was gradually phased down and moved to areas outside of Metro Manila.

PMC's rival company, the Philippine Refining Company or PRC established its based of operations five kilometers upstream of the Pasig River in Paco district, along the United Nations Avenue, near Isla de Provisor. PRC was also engaged in the manufacture of product derivatives from coconut oil. In the 1990s, Philippine Refining Company changed its corporate name as part of the global strategy of company brand recognition and is now called Unilever Philippines.

The United Nation's Avenue near the corner of Romualdez street used to be the mini Detroit in the 1930s when the Ford Motor Company established its first assembly plant in the area. The plant facility remains standing and it houses the government office issuing the seaman's passbook.

American owned oil companies in the 1930s like Esso, Mobil Oil and Filipino Oil or FilOil established their oil distribution and lube facilities along the banks of the Pasig River in Pandacan district, at a time when the area was largely a farm village. after almost a century of operations, the fuel distribution and manufacturing facilities are gradually being removed due to its potential security and safety risk to the highly dense population in the area.

Coca Cola still operates its bottling plant in Pandacan but its plant operations is more focused on product distribution into the Metro Manila franchise area.

Several key and notable manufacturing facilities in the City of Manila closed down through the years especially after 1980s. The country's then largest copra milling company at the boundary of Paco and Pandacan district closed down and its plant site is now a middle class town house facility. The depot of the Philippines only gas company with pipelines servicing every home, the Manila Gas Company ceased operations in the 1980s after a protracted legal battle on ownership issue and its facilities were torn down as the 5.5 hectare Manila Gas property is now being converted into a mixed condomimium and commercial tower.



A busy scene at the baggage retrieval section of the NAIA Terminal 1.

Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA), outside the city proper, serves Manila and the metro area. Over 30 airlines provide daily service to over 26 cities and 19 countries worldwide. Approximately 14 million travellers use NAIA a year, straining what was originally a domestic airport built in the 1930s. A second terminal, Terminal 2 (or the Centennial Terminal) opened in October 1999. The International flag-carrier Philippine Airlines now uses this terminal exclusively for both its domestic and international service while all other international flights use the original NAIA terminal. Air Philippines is in the transition to the newer Terminal 2 alongside PAL. A third terminal was nearly completed until a controversy was discovered by the current Arroyo administration that prompted a series of investigations and international court battle with the builders and the Philippine government. It now is considered another "white elephant" project, wasting Philippine taxpayer money.

The main carrier serving NAIA is Philippine Airlines, which has the most extensive network in the Philippines. Newly repackaged Cebu Pacific Airlines, which uses all A320 aircraft and promotes online booking, positions itself as the first true discount airline in the country. Air Philippines, a subsidiary of Philippine Airlines, competes with Cebu Pacific in the budget market and the inter-provinces routes. Asian Spirit and Sea Air, which use smaller 48-seat planes, are some of the smaller airlines serving the city of Manila.

Another alternative point of embarkation and disembarkation is Diosdado Macapagal International Airport in the Clark Special Economic Zone. As of October 2006, scheduled flights from Singapore, Hong Kong, Macau, Seoul, Kota Kinabalu, and Kuala Lumpur, and chartered flights from Shanghai and Taipei use this small airport because of its cheaper landing and parking fees. A mediocre shuttle system serves Clark and Manila.


Main Major roads in Metro Manila

The main roads of Metro Manila are organized around a set of radial and circumferential roads that radiate and circle in and around Manila proper. Roxas Boulevard, easily the most well-known of Manila's streets, line the southern shores of Manila with Manila Bay. The boulevard is part of the Radial Road 1 that leads south to the province of Cavite. Another well-known radial road is España Boulevard (part of Radial Road 7) that starts in Quiapo and ends at the Welcome Rotunda along the border with Quezon City. Pres. Sergio Osmeña Sr. Highway, part of the South Luzon Expressway or Radial Road 3 is the most important highway linking Manila with the provinces of southern Luzon.

The most common types of public transportation are buses and the jeepney. Tricycles are used for short distances. Pedicabs are bicycles attached with sidecars, where the drivers uses foot pedals to propel the vehicle.


Roxas Bridge (formerly Del Pan Bridge)

There are eight (8) major bridge spans in Manila, more than half of the number of bridges that connects the north and south banks of the Pasig River in Metro Manila. There are two (2) rail bridges that crosses the river, the Light Rail Transit 1 and the Philippine National Railways track. The bridges listed below are in a west to east order, with the first bridge Del Pan, nearest to the mouth of the Pasig River into Manila Bay.

  • Roxas bridge - formerly called Del Pan (Tondo to Port Area)
  • Jones bridge (Binondo to Ermita)
  • McArthur bridge (Santa Cruz to Ermita)
  • LRT 1 (Carriedo station to Central station)
  • Quezon bridge (Quiapo to Ermita)
  • Ayala bridge (San Miguel to Ermita)
  • Mabini bridge - formerly called Nagtahan bridge (Santa Mesa to Pandacan)
  • Philippine National Railways (Santa Mesa station to Pandacan station)
  • Padre Zamora bridge (Santa Mesa to Pandacan)
  • Lambingan bridge (Sta. Ana)

Rail transport

Manila LRT Purple Line Recto Station

Manila is the hub of a railway system on Luzon. The main terminal of the Philippine National Railways is in the Tondo district. Railways extend from this terminal north to the city of San Fernando in Pampanga and south to Legazpi City in Albay, though only the southern railway is currently in operation.

Manila is also serviced by the Manila Light Rail Transit System (separate from Manila Metro Rail Transit System), a national priority project designed to address the overwhelming traffic that congests the national capital. Development of the system began with its inception in the 1970s under the Marcos administration, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast Asia. Recently, the system saw a massive multi-billion dollar expansion in correlation with the rising population of the city; its purpose: to create an alternative form of transportation to solve the demand of an increasingly mobile workforce. After three decades in service, the project has enjoyed an insurmountable success, with favorable opinions from commuters, mainly because of its extremely low fares that is subsidized by the national government. Two lines service the city dwellers and they run along the length of Taft Avenue (R-2) and Rizal Avenue (R-9). A second line runs along Ramon Magsaysay Blvd (R-6) from Santa Cruz, through Quezon City, up to Santolan in Pasig City.

These are the major rail systems, with their station within Manila:

  • LRT 1: R. Papa, J. Abad Santos, Blumentritt, Tayuman, Bambang, D. Jose, Carriedo, Central Station, UN Ave., P. Gil, Quirino Ave, and Vito Cruz
  • LRT 2: C.M. Recto, Legarda, Pureza and V. Mapa
  • PNR: Vito Cruz, Herran, Pandacan, Sta. Mesa, España, Laong Laan, Blumentritt and Tutuban.

Seaports and piers

The City of Manila is the chief seaport of the Philippines. North Harbor and South Harbor experience busy periods during long holidays such as Holy Week, All Saints Day and the Christmas holidays.


Postal service

The Philippines central office for its postal service now called Philippine Postal Corporation and it is located at the foot of the Jones Bridge. The main office is housed in a huge art deco style building designed with huge columns at front, built during the American colonial period. The building houses the Philippine Postal Bank and the main mail sorting-distribution operations of the country.

Print and publication

Manila is home to major Philippine newspaper publishers with a number of offices and printing presses located at the Port Area. The news industry is one of the legacies of the American colonization of the Philippines, as they paved the way for the freedom of the press. Some of the major publications based in Manila include the country's oldest newspapers, the Manila Times, the Manila Bulletin, the Philippine Daily Inquirer, the Philippine Star, the Manila Standard Today, The Daily Tribune and others.

News agencies

The city serves as host to a number of news and information offices, agencies or services that includes the Office of the Press Secretary and Radio-TV Malacañang or RTVM (the close-in news team of Philippine Presidents) located at the Malacañang Palace grounds.

The National Press Club's building office is located at the foot of the Jones bridge across the Post Office building and it houses the International Press Center or IPC, a government agency tasked to accredit and grant working permits for visiting foreign agencies.

Manila is also home to the prestigious and exclusive organization of journalists called, "Samahang Plaridel," whose members include some of the prominent publishers, editors, reporters of the country.

The Associated Press, Japan's NHK and Fuji TV, and London-based Global Radio News, Ltd. made Manila as its base of newsgathering operations in the Philippines.


Electricity and water

Manila's source of electricity is part of the central franchise service area of the Manila Electric Company or Meralco. Water supply for the city is supplied by the Maynilad Water Services, except for portions of the district of Sta. Ana which is serviced by the Manila Water.


Manila City Hall

Like all cities of the Philippines, Manila is governed by a mayor who heads the executive department of the city. The current mayor for the 2004-2007 term is Jose L. Atienza, Jr., who has been re-elected for his third term in the 2004 elections. The city mayor is restricted for three consecutive terms (nine years), although he can be elected again after an interruption of one term.

Danilo B. Lacuna, the city's incumbent vice-mayor heads the legislative arm which is composed of the elected city councilors, six from each of the city's six congressional districts.

The city is divided into 897 barangays, which are the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines. Each barangay has its own chairperson and councilors. For administrative convenience, all the barangays in Manila are grouped into 100 zones and which are further grouped into 16 administrative districts. These zones and districts have no form of local government.

The city further has six representatives popularly elected to the House of Representatives, the lower legislative branch of the Philippines. Each representative represents one of the six congressional districts of Manila.


Pre-Spanish times

Gate of Fuerza de Santiago.
Manila began as a Muslim settlement at the mouth of the Pasig River along the shores of Manila Bay. The name came from the term maynilad, literally "there is nilad." Nilad is a white-flowered mangrove plant that grew in abundance in the area.

In the mid-16th century, the area of present-day Manila was governed by three rajahs, or Muslim community leaders. They were Rajah Sulayman and Rajah Matanda who ruled the communities south of the Pasig, and Rajah Lakandula who ruled the community north of the river. Manila was then the northernmost Muslim sultanate in the islands. It held ties with the sultanates of Brunei, Sulu, and Ternate in Cavite.

Spanish rule

In 1570, a Spanish expedition ordered by the conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi demanded the conquest of Manila. His second in command, Martín de Goiti departed from Cebu and arrived in Manila. The Muslim Tagalogs welcomed the foreigners, but Goiti had other plans. The Spanish force of 300 soldiers marched through Manila and a battle was fought with the heavily armed Spaniards quickly defeating the native settlements. Legazpi and his men followed the next year and made a peace pact with the three rajahs and organized a city council consisting of two mayors, 12 councilors, and a secretary. A walled city known as Intramuros, at the southern banks of Pasig River was built to protect the Spanish colonizers. On June 10, 1574, King Philip II of Spain gave Manila the title of Insigne y Siempre Leal Ciudad ("Distinguished and Ever Loyal City").

In 1595, Manila was proclaimed as the capital of the Philippine Islands and became a center of trans-Pacific trade for more than three centuries. For example, the famous Manila galleons sailed between Manila and the port of Acapulco in today's Mexico. These Manila galleons carried silver and other precious metals from the New World to Manila to purchase goods and raw materials from throughout Asia — for example, spices transshipped from the Spice Islands to the south, and porcelain, ivory, lacquerware and processed silk cloth from China and Southeast Asia. Some of these Asian goods were used in Mexico, however, most of the cargo was transhipped across Mexico for delivery to Spain, to be sold in European markets.

British occupation

There was a brief British occupation of Manila from 1762-1764 as a result of the Seven Years' War, which was fought between France and England. Spain became a British enemy when it sided with France due to ties between their royal families. The British Occupation was confined to Manila and Cavite while Simón de Anda y Salazar, acting as a de facto Spanish governor general, kept the countryside for Spain with the help of Filipino soldiers. The Indian soldiers known as Sepoys, who came with the British, deserted in droves and settled in Cainta, Rizal, and explains the uniquely Indian features of generations of Cainta residents. French mercenaries who came with the British also settled in various locations around Manila. [2]

United States rule

Escolta Street, Manila. stereoptical view, 1899

U.S. Troops invaded Manila in 1898 and waged war with the Spaniards and Filipinos in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War. Following the defeat of Spain, U.S. forces took control of the city and the islands in one of the most brutal and forgotten chapters of Philippine American history. The Filipinos, having just won their independence from Spain, were fiercely opposed to once again being occupied. They had established the Republic of the Philippines under Aguinaldo in Malolos and had begun to build the foundations for an independent nation. The Americans, who had promised Aguinaldo their support and help in 1898 had struck a deal with the Spanish, in which they would stage a mock battle for the islands in Manila which would establish the Americans as the "legitimate" rulers.

American high command was then under the incompetent and unimaginative General Otis. He invaded and immediately routed the Filipino troops who had taken classic defensive positions around Manila to keep them out. These poorly armed, ill-trained soldiers could not compete with the superior firepower of the Americans: they lost and were so severely beaten that the Filipino dead were used as breastworks.

Aguinaldo immediately ordered the Filipinos to start fighting a guerilla campaign. They did this with unmitigated success, as they had the support of the peasantry and knew the terrain and language better that the Americans. The Americans became uneasily aware that they were fighting not just one "tribe" as they had originally thought, but the entire country, and that their original belief in easy victory was not to be.

Otis was becoming an embarrassment to the McKinley administration as his continual pronouncements of victory were never followed up with success. He was replaced with MacArthur, who with his officials, embarked on a long and bloody campaign. MacArthur once confidentially declared that to subdue the islands would take at least ten years. Officially, it ended after three years, unofficially he was proven right.

One incident in particular stands out. Howling Jake was one of the American commanders was in charge of the pacification of Samar. His words to his troops were infamous, "Kill and burn, kill and burn. The more you kill and the more you burn, the more you please me." When asked who would be spared, he replied, "Everyone under ten."

Villages were burned. People were raped and killed. Filipinos were rounded up and placed in concentration camps where disease and hunger took their toll. They had to sleep standing up in the rain, and those who misbehaved were subjected to water torture. Everyone not in the camp was an enemy and killed. Estimates for the war dead go from 100,000 to a million or more. [3]

In the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain handed over the Philippines to the United States of America for US$ 20,000,000 and ending 333 years of Spanish rule in the islands. [1] [2] [3]

The headquarters for USAFFE were located here as were the U.S. 31st Infantry Regiment and the U.S. 808th Military Police Company. The headquarters and bulk of the Philippine Division was located just to the south, at Fort William McKinley. The headquarters for the Far East Air Force was on the outskirts of town, at Nielson Field. Nearby, at Nichols Field was the U.S. 20th Air Base Group. A battalion of the U.S. 12th Quartermaster Regiment was located in the port area and training was conducted there for quartermasters of the Philippine Army.

There were 6 airfields, for the Far East Air Force, within 130 km of Manila, notably Clark, Nichols, and Nielson fields. All U.S. military and airforce bases was closed down in 1992.

World War II

American combat units were ordered to withdraw from the city and all military installations removed on December 30 , 1941, Manila was declared an open city by President Manuel L. Quezon, to spare the city from death and destruction. Quezon issued a decree enlarging the safe zone to include outlying areas of Manila as safe zones, establishing the new administrative jurisdiction called Greater Manila.

The post of mayor of Greater Manila was given to Quezon's former Executive Secretary, Jorge B. Vargas. On the evening of New Year's Day of 1942, a Japanese courier delivered notice to Vargas that Japanese forces already bivouacked at Parañaque would enter Greater Manila the following day. From 9AM to 10AM of January 2, Japanese imperial forces marched into the City of Manila.

Vargas was tasked to hand over to the new authorities Greater Manila and present the remaining Filipino leaders to Japanese authorities. Vargas and the Filipino leaders present were asked to choose three options; (1) a purely Japanese military administration, (2) a dictatorial government run by a Filipino under Gen. Artemio Ricarte who went on self-exile to Japan after the Filipino-American war, or (3) a government by commission selected by Filipinos. Vargas and the local leaders chose the third option and established the Philippine Executive Commission to manage initially Greater Manila, and was later expanded to cover the whole Philippines.

Vargas assumed the position, chairman of the Philippine Executive Commission and appointed to the post of Mayor of Greater Manila in 1942, Leon G. Guinto Sr., a Secretary of Labor under the Philippine Commonwealth administration of President Manuel L. Quezon. Guinto held the position of Mayor of Greater Manila until the liberation of the city.

Under Guinto's war-time administration, the City of Manila that was expanded to Greater Manila included districts such as; "Bagumbayan" means New Town (South of Manila), "Bagumpanahon" means New Era (Sampaloc, Quiapo, San Miguel and Santa Cruz), "Bagumbuhay" means New Life (Tondo), "Bagong Diwa" means New Order (Binondo & San Nicholas), the then newly established Quezon City was collapsed and divided into two districts, while the municipalities of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Malabon, Makati, Mandaluyong, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasay, and San Juan became districts of Manila.

On February 5, 1944 American General Douglas MacArthur fulfilled a promise to return to the Philippines (see Battle of Leyte). From February 3 to March 3, after the climactic battle at Intramuros ended, the thoroughly devastated city of Manila was officially liberated. Allied troops did not reach the city in time to prevent the Manila Massacre though. Ironically, the carpet bombing and relentless shelling by the Americans killed many more than the fleeing Japanese.

Manila and security

Manila has been subject to militant attacks. The metropolis have been targeted twice by groups Moro Islamic Liberation Front and Abu Sayyaf. In addition, Al-Qaida cells have been discovered in the metropolis.

Project Bojinka, which was a large-scale attack being planned in late 1994 and early 1995, was being planned in Manila. The project was abandoned after the night of January 6, 1995 and the morning of January 7, when an apartment fire led investigators to a laptop computer containing the plans.


  1. ^ GaWC Research Bulletin 5
  2. ^ Fish, S. (2003). When Britain Ruled the Philippines 1762-1764. Milton Keynes, UK: Lightning Source, Inc.
  3. ^ Boot, Max (April 1, 2002).The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00720-1. p. 125,As many as 200,000 civilians also died, victims of disease and famine and the cruelties of both sides.;
    *Kumar, Amitava (October 29, 1999).
    Poetics/Politics: Radical Aesthetics for the Classroom. Palgrave. ISBN 0-312-21866-4. In the fifteen years that followed the defeat of the Spanish in Manila Bay in 1898, more Filipinos were killed by U.S. forces than by the Spanish in 300 years of colonization. Over 1.5 million died out of a total population of 6 million.'
    *Painter, Nell Irvin (May 1, 1989). Standing at Armageddon: The United States, 1877–1919. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-30588-0. p. 154, Hundreds of thousands of Filipinos died in battle, of disease, or of other war-related causes.
    *Bayor, Ronald H (June 23, 2004).The Columbia Documentary History of Race and Ethnicity in America. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11994-1. p. 335, Some seven thousand Americans and twenty thousand Filipinos were killed or wounded in the war, and hundreds of thousands of Filipinos – some estimates are as high as 1 million – died of war-related disease or famine.
    *Guillermo, Emil (February 8, 2004). A first taste of empire". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: 03J. The Philippines: 20,000 military dead; 200,000 civilian dead. Some historians, however, put the toll higher – closer to 1 million Filipinos because of the disease and starvation that ensued.
    *(author unknown) (November 1, 2003). Kipling, the 'White Man's Burden,' and U.S. Imperialism". Monthly Review 55: 1. Although a quarter of the million is the “consensual” figure of historians, estimates of Filipino deaths from the war have ranged as high as one million, which would have meant depopulation of the islands by around one-sixth.
  4. ^ The City Of Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, California Web site
  5. ^ NW

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